Parole chiave: Chemical Shift, Liposomes, Breakthrough Innovations, Contrast Enhancement, Inner Cavities, Low Sensitivity, Red Blood Cell, Site Of Interests, Strategic Choice, Water Molecule, Animals, Contrast Media, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Methods, Protons, Chemistry,
*** IBB - CNR *** Molecular and Preclinical Imaging Centers, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences University of Torino Turin, Italy IBB-CNR-UOS University of Torino (IT) Turin, Italy Molecular & Preclinical Imaging Centers, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy., IBB-CNR-UOS, University of Torino (IT), Turin, Italy.,
From the early days of CEST agents' disclosure, it was evident that their potential for in vivo applications was strongly hampered by the intrinsic low sensitivity. Therefore, much work has been devoted to seek out suitable routes to achieve strong CEST contrast enhancement. The use of nanosized systems turned out to be a strategic choice, because a very large amount of CEST agents can be delivered at the site of interest. However, the breakthrough innovation in term of increase of sensitivity was found by designing the lipoCEST agents. The naturally inspired, liposomes vesicles, when loaded with paramagnetic lanthanide-based shift reagents, can be transformed into CEST probes. The large number of water molecules entrapped inside the inner cavity of the nanovesicles represents an enormous pool of exchanging protons for the generation of CEST contrast, whereas the presence of the shift reagent increases the separation in chemical shift of their nuclear magnetic resonance signal from that of the bulk water, thus allowing for a proper exchange regime for the activation of CEST contrast. From lipoCEST, it has been rather straightforward to evolve to cellCEST in order to exploit the cytoplasmatic water molecules as source of the CEST effect, once cells have been loaded with the proper shift reagent. The red blood cells were found to be particularly suitable for the development of the cellCEST concept. Finally, an understanding of the main determinants of the CEST effects in nanosized and cellular-sized agents has allowed the design of innovative lipoCEST/RBC aggregates for potential theranostic applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:602-618. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1385 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
72 Records (70 escludendo Abstract e Conferenze). Impact factor totale: 240.119 (237.882 escludendo Abstract e Conferenze). Impact factor a 5 anni totale: 270.387 (265.732 escludendo Abstract e Conferenze).