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Brain segmentation for radiation oncology application This activity is focused on developing a software procedure for automated segmentation of brain structures starting from brain CTs and/or MRs. The software must support the manual 3D drawing or importing of a lesion ROI, excluded during segmentation. The software applies also an atlas on the segmentation, both on the Gray Matter and the White Matter and produces an RTP structure file, with contours for each slice and for each ROI. Optionally the software can import an RT dose DICOM file with which it calculates dose-volume histograms. The activity is aimed to develop, test, validate and improve the software and use it on the field for research purposes.Comerci Marco, Quarantelli Mario, Pacelli Roberto, Conson Manuel, Liuzzi Raffaele, Cella Laura
Digital brain phantoms are needed to assess the performance of segmentation methods, providing a gold standard, against which compare the segmentation produced by the softwares.
The phantom is composed of 17 tissue compartment and an optional abnormal white matter compartment, simulating MS lesions.
The software has four head models, two normal volunteers and two MS models. Currently the software allow to manually specify the mean signal intensities of the compartments, orientation, position, noise and other parameters or derive them from a target study, segmented automatically by our segmentation software, optionally warping the phantom to the target study.
Four sample phantoms, one for each model, and the custom phantoms are available for download at this link.
Targeted Drug Delivery by integrin avb3 antagonist The main limit of the anticancer agents is the non-specific action on the healthy cells limiting the dosages that can be applied and leading to serious side-effects. In this context, targeted delivery systems allow the selective entry of drugs into the primary tumor, as well as at the site of metastasis. Targeted drug approach is achieved by the exploitation of molecular markers that are over-expressed in cancerous tissues. In particular, ? v? 3 integrin is highly expressed on some invasive as well as the new-born blood vessel. The expression level of the integrin? v? 3, indeed, is an important factor in determining the invasiveness and metastatic potential of malignancy in both preclinical animal models and cancer patients. In this framework the research activity at IBB is focused on the development of peptide based antagonists able to selectively recognize? v? 3 integrin and to deliver radionuclides and/or cytotoxic molecules into tumor cells for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. In parallel, new stabilised nanostructures opportunely functionalised with? v? 3 antagonists are also under investigationPanico Mariarosaria, Zaccaro Laura, Zannetti Antonella, Leone Marilisa
Assessment of the cardiac risk and its temporal variation Risk assessment by noninvasive cardiac imaging is useful for patient management and the evaluation of the extent and severity of stress-induced ischemia is used to guide therapeutic decision-making in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). In particular, the evaluation of the extent and severity of stress-induced ischemia by myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been demonstrated to be effective to risk stratify patients with known CAD and guide for referral catheterization. Our research group assess the predictors and the temporal characteristics of cardiac risk in patients undergoing stress SPECT after coronary revascularization procedures by percutaneous coronary intervention and by coronary artery bypass grafting. The partial results of our studies indicated that clinical variables and stress SPECT performed after coronary revascularization procedures are useful to characterize the risk of cardiac events and its temporal variation. Parametric survival models seem useful to estimate predicted time to risk and levels of risk at specific time intervals after revascularization. Similarly, our group is the promoter and the coordinator of a prospective, multi-center trial designed to evaluate the impact of inducible ischemia by stress SPECT (IDIS trial) in diabetic patients with suspected and known CAD, and to define the role of SPECT results in assessing the cardiac risk in such patientsAcampa Wanda
The Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging (IBB) of the National Research Council (CNR) has 100 staff units distributed in Naples and Turin (70 researchers / technologists) and carries out translational research for the development of new tools for prevention, diagnosis and targeted therapies.
To accomplish these objectives, researchers studying biomolecules from a structural and functional point of view collaborate with experts in preclinical imaging that study cellular and animal models of human diseases and clinical researchers carrying out experiments in humans.
Research activities include basic research, a laboratory for the preclinical imaging of small animals and clinical research areas carried out in collaboration with universities and other research institutions. The combination of design and testing expertise, both in vitro and in vivo, of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents with expertise in multiple imaging modalities (including MRI, optical imaging, PET / SPECT, ultrasound, CT) provide the interdisciplinary bases to carry out a truly innovative research in the field of molecular imaging and personalized therapy. The IBB has a consolidated experience in the research of biomarkers of various pathologies, design and synthesis of molecules able to interact with certain biomarkers and preclinical validation of the molecules developed.
Another research area developed by IBB is e-Health. The activity aims to create open-source software systems, consisting of models, services and tools to support diagnosis, therapy and follow-up, as well as for the innovative management of health processes.
The Institute is part of the Italian node of the European Research Infrastructure for Imaging Technologies in Biological and Biomedical Sciences (Euro-BioImaging, EuBI).
The fundamental activity of the Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging consists of the following research areas:
• Design, synthesis, expression and structural characterization of molecules of biological interest, and their interactions with metal ions. Applications in the diagnostic and therapeutic field.
• Biochemical technologies and biostructures;
• Biochemical technologies aimed at diagnostic imaging;
• Image diagnostics and radiotherapy;
• Preclinical and clinical molecular imaging. New diagnostic / teragnostics agents for Molecular Imaging;
• Development of innovative technological e-health solutions, with particular attention to the issues of telemedicine and assisted diagnosis.